A chapter titled, ‘Open Schools in Developing Countries: Virtual and Open or Distant and Closed‘ has been authored by Jyotsna Jha and Neha Ghatak. It has been published by SpringerNature in the ‘Handbook of Open, Distance and Digital Education‘ edited by Olaf Zawacki-Richter and Insung Jung.
This book gives an in-depth overview and understanding of Open, Distance and Digital Education (ODDE) in the age of digital transformation in education. It also discusses the issues related to ODDE from the perspective of its historicity and cross cultures. It also helps to establish a common platform for both new and established researchers, educators, policy makers and administrators. The 3M framework categorises the major research areas and issues in ODDE on three levels. Using this 3M framework, the handbook brings together six sections of the Macro (ODDE Systems and Theories), Meso (Institutional Perspectives, Management and Organization) and Micro levels (Learning and Teaching in ODDE) respectively. Link to the handbook – https://link.springer.com/referencework/10.1007/978-981-19-0351-9